Spice and Rice

Bowl of Mint

There are many wonderful recipes out there on the web from great cooks around the world; but in order to try some of these fantastic recipes sometimes it helps to have translations of some of the spices, and other ingredients, that often appear in food blogs.  I'll be adding more as time goes on.  This is a work in progress.(It is primarily meant to be a helpful guide for those trying to understand recipes in other languages--in other words, the transliterations may not reflect authoritative linguistic standards.) :-)

English Hindi Persian Arabic Dari Spanish/French
Anise  aneesoon Badian   anís –anis
Asafoetida Hing
Barberries Zereshk
Bay leaf Tej patta Waraq al ghaar  hoja de laurel–feuille de laurier
Cayenne Pisi hui lal mirch  Filfil ghermez Filfil Ahmar/hareef Morch e-surkh  pimienta de cayena–poivre rouge
Cardamom Elaichi (Bari-Black Card.) Hel Habb al-haalحب الهال Hel-e-sabz/ hel-brenge for the black cardamom cardamomo–cardamome
Chile peppers Sabut hari mirch chile  or pimiento–piment
Chile peppers Sabut laal mirch/dried  filfil hareef
Chives/Onion chives Tareh/Tarrey (although Tareh is different than chives) Gandana  cebollinos–ciboulette
Cinnamon Dalchini Daarcheen Qirfa  قرفة Dalcheeni canela–cannelle
Cloves Long Mikhak Qurunfil  قرنفل clavo de olor–clou de girofle
Cumin seeds Jeera Zeereh Kamoon كمون Zeera semillas de comino–cumin
Cilantro leaves Hara Dhania Geshniz  kusbara Gashniz hojas de cilantro–coriandre
Coriander seeds Dhania Gheshniz Tokhme gashniz semillas de cilantro–coriandre
Curry leaf Kari patta
Dill savaa Shivid Shabath/shibitشبت eneldo–aneth
Fennel Sanf Shammar Jwani semillas de hinjo (seeds)–fenouil
Feugreek Kasuri Methi Shanbalile  hulba حلبة  fenogreco–fenugrec
Garam Masala Spice mix,used whole or dried-card.,cinn.,cumin,cloves, bay leaves,corian.seeds
Garlic Lasan  seer thoom ثوم Sir ajo–ail
Ginger Saunth/sounth–dried zanjabeel Zanjafel jengibre–gingembre
Ginger Adrak-fresh Zanjabil  zanjabeel زنجبيل
Nijella seeds Kalonji Ciadona
Mace Javitri  qishrat jawz aT-Teeb macis–macis
Mango pwdr. Amchoor.Amchur Amba
 marjoram  mardaqooshمردقوش  mejorana–marjolaine
Mint Pudina Na’na  n’anā  نعناع Na’na menta–menthe
Mustard seeds Sarson ka beej/rai Khardal semillas de mostaza-graine de moutarde
Nutmeg Jawz aT-Teebجوز الطيب nuez moscada–noix de muscade
Onion/yellow  piaz Al-Basl Al-Asfar Nosh piyaz cebolla–oignon
Parsley baqdoonisبقدونس  perejil–persil
Pomegranate anar rumman granada–grenade
 Poppy seeds  budhoor al-khashkhaash  khash khash  semilla de amapola–graines de pavot
Raisins  kishmish  zabiib Kishmish uva or pasa–raisin sec
 rosemary  HaSaa albaan  romero–romarin
Saffron Kesar Zaafaran  ZaAfaraanزعفران azafrán–safran
Sugar Jaggery/Gur Shekar  sukkar Bora azúcar–sucre
Sumac/from the red-berried bush Sumac Sumac Ghoraeangur
Tamarind Imli Tamr-E-Hendi tamarindo
Thyme ZaAtar زعتر  tomillo–thym
 Tumeric  Haldi  Zardchubeh  kurkum كركم  zardchuba  cúrcuma–curcuma
Vinegar Sirka  serkeh  khall vinagre–vinaigre
Yogurt Dahi/curd Mast  laban raa’ib Qroot/Mast yogur or yogurt–yahourt/yogourt
Strained yogurt Lebneh/Lebni Lebneh/Lebni Chaka

Now try our short Arabic and English spice quiz!

 

 

COOKING TERMS IN FOUR LANGUAGES SIDE BY SIDE-English,Spanish, French and Dari (We are working on adding more to the Dari.:-) )

English verb Spanish verb Spanish formal imperative French verb French formal imperative Dari verb
Add añadir añada ajouter ajoutez  اضافه کردن
bake hornear hornee cuire/enfourner cuisez پختن
beat batir bata battre Battez زدن
boil hervir hierva bouillir/faire bouillir Faites bouillir                 جوش دادن
burn quemar  queme brûler brûlez سوختاندن
chill enfriar  enfríe refroidir laissez tiédir ou refroidir, refroidissez
cook cocinar cocine cuire cuisez   پختن
to carry away/take away llevar lleve  enlever  enlevez
cover cubrir cubra couvrir Couvrez پوشانیدن
cover tapar tape couvrir couvrez
crack romper rompa craque,casser Cassez
cut cortar corte couper coupez
chop/cut cortar corte couper coupez
devein desvenar desvene  éveiner  éveinez
dice picar,cortar en cubitos pique, corte  Coupez les poivrons en dés.
dip sumergir sumerja tremper trempez
drain escurrir escurra égoutter égouttez آبصاف کردن
dredge rebosar rebose  Rouler (roll)  roulez (roulez le poulet dans la…)
freeze congelar congele congeler congelez یخ بستن
fry freír fría frire frisez
grate rallar ralle râper râpez رنده ( تراشک) کردن
grind moler muela moudre moulez
heat calentar caliente chauffer, échauffer Chauffez حرارت دادن
fill llenar llene remplisser Remplissez
make hacer haga faire faites
melt Derretir derrita frondre faites fondre
mix mezclar mezcle mélanger mélangez
peel pelar pele peler pelez پوست کردن
place colocar coloque placer placez
pour verter vierta verser versez ریختاندن
preheat precalentar precaliente préchauffer préchauffez
put poner ponga mettre mettez
reduce reducir reduzca réduire réduisez
remove  retirar retire sortir/retirer retirez بردا شتن
saute saltear saltee  sauter  sautez
season condimentar condimente assaisonner assaisonnez
serve servir sirva servir Servez
spread untar unte  étaler  étalez
sprinkle salpicar salpique saupoudrer saupoudrez پاشیدن
stir revolver revuelva remuer Remuez
to take out/remove sacer saque  retirer  retirez
turn off apagar apague éteindre éteignez
turn on encender encienda  allumer (light)  allumez
uncover destapar destape découvrir découvrez

For a more extensive list of cooking terminology translations go to the individual pages:

http://cultureandcuisine.com/frases-en-ingles-y-espanol/

 http://cultureandcuisine.com/english-bilingual-content-englishfrench/

http://cultureandcuisine.com/dari/

Here are a few basic flavor combinations used in Indian, Pakistani, Persian, Iraqi, Afghan and Ethiopian food to play with.  There are many more of course,but this is a good place to start.:-)

  Some Basic Indian and Pakistani Spice Combinations

turmeric, coriander and cayenne

tumeric, cumin, coriander and cayenne

cumin, coriander, cayenne mustard seeds and cumin seeds (usually the black/brown variety of mustard seeds)

The combination of the two spices adds a nice crunch to Basmati rice as in the well known Lemon Rice dishes.

cloves, green cardamom, black cardamom, cinnamon, chile powder, tumeric

wet masala: sautéed onions, ginger, tomatoes, garlic, and spices, mixed with yogurt or cream, or just tumeric, coriander, and cayenne mixed with yogurt and no tomatoes, onions or garlic Flavor combination of spicy with sweet, as in the fruit or potato chaats and chevda cereal snack comination Saffron, rose water, cardamom and pistachio (Also used in Persian cooking)

Persian flavor combinations

Tart with rice: barberries with rice

Tart with rice and saffron: rice with saffron tahdig and barberries

Tart with sweet and rice (like the shirin polow—rice with orange and berberries)

Khoreshes: 1: saffron, lime juice, turmeric,

2: tomato juice or sauce with lime, saffron, turmeric  with advieh;

 and  dill, parsley, cilantro and leeks as in kookoo sabzi Combinations of fruit with advieh, saffron, lime tomato juice or tomato paste, turmeric; this is one of the flavor combinations that makes Persian food so fantastic!

Check here for a recipe for advieh from a well known Persian cook book author–

http://www.mypersiankitchen.com/advieh-%E2%80%93-a-blend-of-spices-for-persian-cooking/

Ethiopian flavor combinations

Onion base with tomatoes and Berbere cooked down 

added garlic paste Tumeric with lentils and onions and/or potatoes

Berbere with tomatoes and everything else you can think of--it's great just sprinkled over some roasting sweet potato slices.

Afghan flavor combinations

Coriander with cayenne Khask with yogurt, or yogurt and lebneh; and almost always sprinkled with dried mint

Tomato with coriander and cayenne--as in the tomato sauce for the Ashak--with a yogurt sauce and dried mint topping Lemon with tomato, coriander and cayenne, as in the flavors for Dosh Kaboob.

Serrano chilies with everything: chutneys, salads, and entrees Kalongi seeds in cilantro chutney and on baked goods—like rote.

Garlic paste added to the tomato sauce mixture of cumin, coriander and tomatoes.

Garlic added to the Khask and yogurt or yogurt and lebneh/lebne/labne mix  

Iraqi *Arab 7 spice combination, or many of the other spice combinations that can be found in most international markets; some markets make and sell their own delicious combinations--like Valley Foods in El Cajon, CA.

Lemon (or acidic flavor, lemon omani, dried limes or lemons) with tomato paste (as in the fantastic Iraqi bulgur wheat dish, or in stuffed dolmeh recipes.

The Sumac spice also adds a little bit of a sour citrus flavor.

Zaatar with bread—as in the Iraqi pizzas, Zaatar with lebneh, Mint with lebneh/labneh, mint on salad *

This web site lists several different variations on the Middle Eastern seven spice blend http://www.adventuressheart.com/2011/07/arabic-seven-spice-baharaat.html

A SHORT  RICE HOW TO

Basic White Basmati  Rice. Use large  pot.  I really  prefer the pots you can buy at International markets that have a steam whole in the lid!!!!!!Making the rice just so is also one of the  critical components to cooking food from these countries; instructions on how to cook Basmati rice Persian style, or Aghan,Pakistani, or Indian style are also included. (I'm partial to the  Persian  method.)

Persian Method Using 2 cups raw Basmati rice to equal 6 cups cooked rice=6-8 ½-1 cup servings 1.Soak rice for ½ to 2 hours, longer is definitely better.  Rinse 5 or 6 times, till water is almost clear. 2.Fill large pot full  of water.  Add rice. Turn it on high. 

Once water and rice start boiling (dancing) turn to medium high and let rice dance for 4-5 min.  Then drain. (It’s ready for a Persian or Indian Biryani here. )

Some people like to rinse the rice at this point--but it is by no means essential. 3. Place pot back on stove and add rice.  Turn heat on to medium.  When you start to see steam (4-6 min.) add a mix of 1/3 of oil and 1/3 cup of water with 1 teaspoon salt.  Drill 3 or four “wholes” in rice to help steam escape.

Then place two layers of paper towels or regular towel under the lid to catch condensation.  Make sure  paper towel is directly next to the lid and not hanging down--so it doesn't catch fire!!!!!!!!! (I use two paper towels folded once.) 4.Turn on low and cook for 15 min.(If rice soaked for 2 hours this time can be reduced to 10 min.

5.Turn off heat and let sit for additional 15-25min.  The longer the better. You want the rice to stand up!

And of course there are many spices you can use while the rice is cooking during the second stage: ½ teaspoon ground cardamom, or 1 teaspoon of seeds or pods, a cinnamon stick, one black cardamom pod, a few cloves or separately 1 teaspoon cumin seeds,  and then there are many herbs and spices that can be added or sprinkled on top--but that's another story!

 

Pakistani/Indian/Afghan/Evaporation Method. Using 2 cups raw Basmati rice to equal 6 cups cooked rice=6-8 ½-1 cup servings 1.Soak rice for ½ to 2 hours, longer is definitely better.  Rinse 5 or 6 times, till water is almost clear. This process uses evaporation method., so you don’t remove rice and drain after first cooking stage as in Persian rice. Place 2 cups of rice in pot with 3 ½  cups of water : 1 cup rice to 1 ¾ cup water.  (Some people  use a 2 x 1 ratio.) Add 1 teaspoon salt and 2 tablespoons oil. (Some folks like to add ¼ cup veggie oil.) Turn on heat and cook on high, when you start to see the craters start forming in the rice turn heat down to medium.  This process takes 10-15 min.  When it looks  like most , but not all, of the water has evaporated.  Place paper towel under the lid and turn to low.  Cook for another 10 min. and then turn heat off and let sit for 15-25 min.  The longer the better.